For centuries jewelry was designed by men. Seems odd, doesn’t it, when most all jewelry is worn by women? But the design field was male dominated for the same reason most fields were–men were seen as the more capable sex and the bread winners of the family. When did it become clear that women could design for women?
Perhaps the first to recognize this talent in a female was Rene’ Boivin, a Parisian goldsmith and engraver in the late 1800s. He married Jeanne Poiret, a woman who became his business partner in his jewelry workshops. Together they created fabulous designs which were in high demand among their elite clientele.
Egyptian Emerald Ring by Maison Boivin
When Rene’ died in 1917, everyone assumed that Jeanne would sell the business but, instead, she and her daughter, Germaine, assumed control. Jeanne, though not trained as a jeweler, knew a lot from working with her husband. She’d think out the designs and have someone else render them. She also had a talent for finding good talent, hiring young Suzanne Belperron in 1921 and, when Suzanne left in 1931, the talented Juliette Moutarde took her place.
Suzanne Belperron opened her own jewelry design firm with Bernard Herz, and later, his son, Jean, in a partnership that lasted over 40 years. Her designs were so distinctive–very fluid and organic. Even while those around her embraced Art Deco, with its straight lines, Suzanne elevated a more modern design. Famous women like the Duchess of Windsor and Mona Williams (pictured below) bought her jewelry. Her work was never signed, though. She always said that her style was her signature.
Sketch and finished piece by Suzanne Belperron
Juliette Moutarde worked with Jeanne and Germaine at House Boivin until they sold the company in 1976. Jeanne had died in 1959, but her daughter, a talented jewelry designer in her own right, kept the business going. Throughout these successful years, custom pieces were never signed by the individual artists. Perhaps it was seen as too bold, too assertive, for a woman to sign her work back in the early 1900s.
Design attributed to Moutarde, made for Claudette Colbert in 1936.
But because of these women, and a few others like Italian Elsa Schiaparelli, female jewelry designers today feel empowered to open their own studios, sign their names to their pieces, and earn their own success in the design world. Thanks to these pioneers, we know names like Paloma Picasso, Elsa Peretti, and Ippolita Rostagno, who have had their own jewelry lines for decades. And because of THEM, contemporary female designers–from Kendra Scott and Irene Neuwirth to Farah Khan Ali and Erica Courtney find success in the always competitive jewelry industry.
contemporary Ippolita design
Today we don’t think much about gender when choosing a designer. If you like the creation, you respect the designer! But it wasn’t always like that, and I wanted to lift up the courage of Jeanne Bouvin and her team of female designers. They worked and made their way successfully in a male world. Good for them and thank goodness for us. Their combination of talent and determination allowed women who came after to enter the field with confidence. Because of that, I want to nominate Jeanne Poiret Boivin for Mother of Female Jewelry Designers!
Flawless Quartz Crystal Sphere at the Smithsonian Natural History Museum (106.75 lbs)
This crystal sphere is the largest cut piece of flawless quartz in the world, weighing in at 242,323 carats! It symbolizes our fascination with something so beautiful and yet so common. Quartz is found around the world, in large quantities, and is considered one of the most common minerals on Earth. It’s found in sand, dirt, and dust. Yet, when fashioned by gem cutters and put in a stunning piece of jewelry, it can be breathtaking.
Quartz is a complicated gemstone. One of the reasons it’s tricky is because the term “quartz” is used for varieties of gems, as well as for a species of gem and as a group of gems. So, for example, Rose Quartz is a variety of the species Quartz. So is Citrine, Amethyst, and Tiger’s Eye! All these varieties, and others that are couched under the species of Chalcedony, such as Agate and Jasper, are considered to be members of the group, Quartz. Very confusing!!
Perhaps it’s best to start with the fact that mineralogists and geologists see any mineral with the chemical makeup of silicon dioxide, SiO2, as Quartz. Regardless of whether the crystals making up that stone are large, small, or microscopic, it’s all Quartz. Gemologists, on the other hand, separate the gems into those whose crystals are larger and those too small to see without a high-powered microscope. Those with larger crystals are called Quartz and those with microcrystalline structures are labeled Chalcedony.
Under these two species are many varieties that are used in jewelry. Probably the most commonly known variety of the quartz species is Amethyst. That regal purple has been admired for centuries. The purple color comes from natural irradiation acting upon a trace element of iron. The saturated, medium to deep reddish purple is the most prized color, but amethyst ranges from a light, pinkish purple to that deep purple hue. Amethyst is not rare, but the prized color is more rare because usually only the tips of the amethyst crystals have that depth of color.
Agate and Amethyst, showing the deep purple tips of the quartz crystals, as well as the microcrystalline Agate, which is part of the Chalcedony species.
Other varieties of the Quartz species include Citrine, the orange-yellow gemstone that’s November’s birthstone, and Rock Crystal, which is colorless because it has no trace elements. There’s also Rose Quartz, Smoky Quartz, Prasiolite (aka Green Amethyst), and Ametrine (a bi-colored gem combining the purple of Amethyst and the yellow of Citrine).
Members the Chalcedony species have been used in jewelry even longer than Amethyst! Agates, which exhibit wavy bands of color, were used in amulets and talismans over 3000 years ago. They were also used to make cameos. Carvers would reveal a differently colored band by carving down around the subject of the piece. Today you’ll see agate slice pendants that are sometimes dyed to accentuate the banding.
Probably the most valuable member of the Chalcedony species is Chrysoprase. This translucent gemstone is beloved for its natural apple-green color. It owes its color to the presence of nickel. A big discovery of Chrysoprase was made in 1965 in Australia. Because its color can resemble fine jadeite, it’s sometimes called “Australian Jade.”
Other varieties of the Chalcedony species include Black Onyx (dyed black chalcedony), Carnelian, Jasper, and Fire Agate. Most chalcedony is translucent to opaque, so it’s rarely faceted. Most often it’s fashioned into beads, slices or cabochons. But, just like all Quartz, it registers a 7 on the Mohs Hardness Scale, making it a good choice for rings and bracelets as well as earrings and pendants.
There’s so much that can be said about this beautiful mineral that surrounds us everyday. But I want to end with the sentiment– “How wonderful when something so common can also be so special!”
Custom-made Ametrine Ring in our showcase!
Paraiba tourmalines photographed from the GIA Collection for the CIBJO project from the Dr. Eduard J. Gubelin Collection.
This blog is the first of a series on gemstone treatments. The truth is, all gemstones have been modified by man. We’d like to think that a gemstone’s beauty is completely natural, but the reality is man plays a part. Cutting and polishing bring out the sparkle and color. Shaping and setting is all done by man. So a gemstone’s beauty can be attributed to both man and nature. Each consumer must decide what level of man’s contribution is acceptable. Everyone sees that man must be involved to some degree, but opinions vary on enhancements such as irradiation, dyeing, or fracture-filling. Is there a point where man’s contribution to a gemstone’s beauty goes over the fine line, when the stone just doesn’t seem natural anymore?
Another fine line is the one jewelers walk everyday when conversing with customers about gemstones. There are laws and guidelines, set by the government and the AGTA (American Gem Trade Association), for disclosure of gemstone treatments. But jewelers adhering to those guidelines also have to make sales in order to stay in business. Some customers are truly interested in learning about how gemstones arrive at their beautiful state. But many would be bored by a lesson in gemstone treatments and might walk away from a sales representative who insisted on giving all the details. Certainly anyone who sells jewelry should honestly answer customer questions about gemstone enhancements or treatments. We want our customers to understand as much as they’d like to understand about gemstone treatments. We want them to understand that, if treatments didn’t exist, most of us would be unable to afford pretty gemstones.
So that’s what the series will be about. It will give you an overview of some of the main treatments on some of the most common gemstones in the market. The series will also discuss some gemstones that are not treated–ONLY cut, polished, and set. If you find this fascinating, I will include some sources for learning more. And remember, if you want to know more about the gemstone you’re buying, just ask.
I’ve lived most of my life in Michigan and my maiden name is Campbell. Most people don’t know that because I’ve been married so long! But I always thought Campbell was a good name, so I was both happy and surprised to learn that there is a gemstone named after. . .no, not me, nor my kinfolk, but after the Campbell shaft of the well known Bisbee Mine in Southern Arizona.
So, what’s the story of Campbellite? As explained by one of the stone cutters at Arizona Lapidary, Campbellite is an uncertain mixture of minerals like cuprite, azurite, malachite, calcite,chrysocolla, pyrite, quartz, and copper. Its color and look varies because there’s no set amount of these minerals. It was first discovered by miners looking for copper. The bosses weren’t interested in this unusual rock, and told the miners to discard it. But the miners had a different plan. They saw its beauty. So, yes, they dumped the Campbellite in the trashcan. But they separated it carefully from the real trash. And when no one was looking, they loaded the discarded gem into the back ends of pickups. Campbellite has been showing up in the market, piece by piece. There’s not a lot of it–I’m sure plenty WAS dumped. The mine closed in 1975, and there is no other known source of Campbellite. But I bought one piece of it, cut into a smooth cabochon, and plan to make a bolo tie for my dad.
I learned a little bit about the mine shaft itself. It was first developed in 1927, originally as a way to get oxygen to other parts of the Bisbee Mine. But soon it was one of the best producers of copper ore, with yields of 8-10% copper.
Finally, who is the Campbell shaft named after? A little research revealed an amazing coincidence. The shaft was named after Gordon R. Campbell, who actually lived and went to school in Michigan! He graduated from U of M in 1893 and was a mining executive and lawyer up in the Keweenaw Peninsula. The Keweenaw Peninsula, jutting from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, is one of the best known sources of copper world-wide. Towns like Calumet, Houghton, and Copper Harbor were booming back in the mid-1800s because of copper. Anyway, Gordon Campbell helped form the Calumet and Arizona Mining Company in 1901, serving as the company’s President from 1921-1931. It was this company that operated the Bisbee Mine. So Campbellite WAS named for a Campbell living in Michigan. Who knows? Maybe he’s a long, lost cousin?
The Campbell shaft, courtesy of the Arizona Historical Society