Tanzanite-Birthstone of a Generation

Tanzanite, that beautiful violet-blue gemstone with the interesting history, doesn’t seem that rare.  Most jewelry stores have at least a few pieces.  Most consumers recognize the name, tanzanite, and can’t remember when it wasn’t available.  But we are actually the lucky “generation” to have this precious gem.  Going to the store and buying a new piece of tanzanite jewelry will probably not be an option for our grandchildren and great-grandchildren.  

The history begins back in the late 1960s, when the blue-purple variety of the mineral, zoisite, was first discovered.  Found in the Merelani Hills of Tanzania, near Mount Kilimanjaro, the gem quickly gained the attention of Tiffany’s president, Henry Platt.  It was Tiffany & Co. that named the gem, Tanzanite, and began marketing it in 1968.  The popularity of the gemstone grew over the next few decades and, in 2002, Tanzanite became an official birthstone for December.  It also is the gemstone for the 24th wedding anniversary.  

Most gemstones are found in various places on Earth.  But the geological circumstances that allow tanzanite to form are very rare and have only been found in the Merelani Hills.  All the mines are located within eight square miles!  A big reason for this is that vanadium, the trace element responsible for the violet-blue color, is not a common element.  And it was very rare during the formation time of tanzanite.  Another reason for tanzanite’s rarity is that only in this one location has erosion of the Earth’s surface tipped the scales enough to allow the continental crust, where the gems were formed, to be pushed up by the oceanic crust.  Bringing the gemstones closer to the Earth’s surface has allowed mining to be profitable. 

For how much longer will mining be profitable?  In the early 2000’s money was invested in understanding the conditions ripe for tanzanite.  Mining became more efficient and production increased.  Recent reports, however, point out that mines have to go deeper to find more tanzanite.  At some point, the cost of mining will be prohibitive.  When production slows and the jewelry industry can’t count on a steady supply, it will look to other, more available, gems.  This may lead to a downward spiral of demand and supply for tanzanite.

You are part of the “generation” that can still go to your favorite jewelry store and buy this beautiful gem.  Unless some other deposit is discovered, future generations will have to buy previously owned tanzanite.  So, if you love tanzanite, don’t delay in getting your special piece of it.

Our pieces of tanzanite, currently in stock

 

 

Elizabeth Taylor Revisited–When One Post Just Isn’t Enough

A few months back I wrote about Elizabeth Taylor’s Jewelry, based on her book, My Love Affair With Jewelry.  Little did I know that the blog would spark so much interest, both in me and in others.  After more research and a presentation at our store, I feel empowered to add to the topic. 

Elizabeth Taylor was always a lady, always “put together.” These were the words of a friend of hers who I was fortunate to speak with.  She wore jewelry appropriate to the occasion.  She owned big, dripping, diamond, emerald, and ruby jewelry which she wore on the ‘red carpets.’  But she also owned more modest pieces like strings of beads and charm bracelets.  According to her friend, she never left her room without jewelry adorning her outfit, but she made sure the jewelry fit the occasion.  

She obviously loved receiving gifts of jewelry, but she was always willing to share her pieces with the world.  She didn’t lock them away.  As she said in her book, “When I wear it anyone can look at it, and I’ll let anyone try it on.”  For all that she owned, I’m not convinced she was materialistic.  I think she cared most about people.  She related to people and had many friends.  The people who knew and loved her most understood that the receiving of gifts was her top ‘Love Language.’  Malcolm Forbes once gave her a suite of paper jewelry that she treasured. A gift was an expression of love, and that was most important to her.

Paper Jewelry from Malcolm Forbes

 

Elizabeth always knew that, when she died, most of her jewelry would be auctioned off to the highest bidder.  Her collection would not remain intact.  She hoped that the new owners would love the pieces as much as she did, and that they’d see themselves as caretakers.  “Nobody owns anything this beautiful.  We are only the guardians,” she said.  

In December, 2011, nine months after Elizabeth died, her jewelry did indeed get auctioned by Christie’s, both in a live auction at New York’s Rockefeller Center and also through an on-line auction.  The live auction was the most valuable jewelry auction in history, raising almost $116 million.  I spoke with someone who went to the auction.  She and her husband had hoped to purchase some of Elizabeth Taylor’s jewelry for their store, just for promotional purposes.  But the pieces were fetching two, three, and up to ten times the auction estimate.  They ended up buying the paper jewelry, and even that sold for $6,875!  

The on-line auction had over 950 items–jewelry, clothing, accessories, and decorative arts–that sold over the extended period of December 3rd – 17th.  Altogether the auctions raised over 150 million dollars for the Elizabeth Taylor Trust and its beneficiaries. The Trust completely funds the operating costs of the Elizabeth Taylor AIDS Foundation.

 One controversy regarding the auction casts a shadow over its success.  In May, 2017, the Elizabeth Taylor Trust filed suit against Christie’s for misrepresenting one of Ms. Taylor’s most iconic diamonds, the Taj Mahal.  In 2012, the buyer of the diamond claimed that he was led to believe the diamond was once owned by Shah Jahan, the emperor who built the Taj Mahal.  He wanted his $8 million back when he learned there was no proof the Shah had ever owned it.  Christie’s refunded his money, but the Trustees felt that Christie’s action was inappropriate.  The trustees never portrayed the diamond as something that had belonged to the Shah, and they were upset that the best opportunity to sell the diamond was gone because of miscommunication.  As it stands right now, Christie’s possesses the diamond and the Trustees have the cash.  After years of trying to resolve the controversy through mediation, the decision was made to go through the courts.  It sound like a terrible mess which will probably take years to untangle. 

Elizabeth Taylor lived a complicated life.  She was often misunderstood.  It makes sense that, even after she’s gone, there’s some untangling to be done.  But I hope you agree with me that learning more about this fascinating celebrity is worth the effort.

 

Made in Michigan Jewelry

Michigan isn’t known as a state rich in gemstones.  We have Petoskey (our state stone) and Isle Royale Greenstone (our state gem).  There are no sapphires, emeralds, or rubies, but this hasn’t stopped us from making our own gems.  Be thankful for the ingenuity of artists who use the materials readily available to them.  If you’re a Michigander, you can be proud of our “Made in Michigan” gems. 

Detroit is the Motor City.  Henry Ford started making automobiles around the turn of the 20th century.  Little did he know he’d be helping the jewelry industry!  But Fordite, or “Motor Agate” as it’s sometimes called, is made from the same kind of lacquer or enamel paint that graced the cars of the mid-1900s. Today the material is used to make such things as pendants, earrings, and cuff links.  

Fordite Pendant made from Cadillac Paint

For decades, automobiles were spray painted by hand in rooms called painting bays. The painted car frames sat on skids that could then be moved to the oven when the paint was ready for curing.  Over time, excess paint on the skids, baked hard by many trips to the oven, made the skids less efficient.  Workers would chip big chunks of psychedelic enamel off, and, at some point, they realized that the colorful chunks could be cut and polished.

According to experts on the material, the heyday for Fordite was in the 1970s, because such a variety of color was offered.  Experts can look at a piece of Fordite and know, approximately, when the piece was formed. For example, bright colors of red, green and yellow were popular in the 1960s.  Earthtones of olive green and brown were popular in the 1970s.  Experts can also distinguish Fordite from the creations of contemporary jewelers who can make their own “Fordite-like” pieces.  Obviously, the “natural Fordite” is more valuable.

By the late 1980s, innovation in the painting process reduced the amount of wasted paint.  Today’s cars are painted with robotic arms and a magnetic process which eliminates the chance of overspray.  Sadly, colorful Fordite is no longer made.  If you want to own a piece of Fordite, don’t wait too long!

Fordite isn’t the only example of recycling in jewelry.  In the town of Leland, near Traverse City, jewelry is made from the slag by-product of an iron smelting process.  Back in the late 1800s, Leland was home to the Leland Lake Superior Iron Company.  Situated close to the harbor, right on Lake Michigan, the company separated iron from the raw ore.  The glass-like slag, made of silicon dioxide and metal oxide, had useful purposes when the company was in business, but when it folded in 1885, heaps of unneeded slag were dumped into the harbor.  Within a few years green, blue, gray, and even purple pieces of the slag were coming up on shore like beach stones.  Snorkelers find larger chunks of the slag further out in the harbor.  No one seems to know who first decided that the material could be shaped and polished for jewelry, but it’s been used for at least 30 years. Today, almost any jewelry store in the Leelanau Peninsula has jewelry made from Leland Blue. 

Leland Blue Rough

 

Let me mention one final example of recycled material in jewelry. A young company, Rebel Nell, figured out how to use another of the Motor City’s commodities. They make sterling silver jewelry from peeling and fallen graffiti paint. The process Rebel Nell uses to stabilize the paint is a trade secret, but it’s no secret that they are doing great work. The mission of the company is to employ, educate, and empower disadvantaged women living in local shelters.  The work they do, making bracelets, rings, pendants, and earrings, allows the women to transition to an independent life. 

 

Graffiti paint bracelet, made by Rebel Nell

Recycling is a strategy that only grows in popularity.  Michigan jewelers take slag, paint, and other things that have little value (think beach glass and copper nuggets) and make new treasures from them.  It’s the Michigander way!

 

 

Mother of Female Jewelry Designers

For centuries jewelry was designed by men. Seems odd, doesn’t it, when most all jewelry is worn by women? But the design field was male dominated for the same reason most fields were–men were seen as the more capable sex and the bread winners of the family. When did it become clear that women could design for women?
Perhaps the first to recognize this talent in a female was Rene’ Boivin, a Parisian goldsmith and engraver in the late 1800s. He married Jeanne Poiret, a woman who became his business partner in his jewelry workshops. Together they created fabulous designs which were in high demand among their elite clientele.

Egyptian Emerald Ring by Maison Boivin

When Rene’ died in 1917, everyone assumed that Jeanne would sell the business but, instead, she and her daughter, Germaine, assumed control. Jeanne, though not trained as a jeweler, knew a lot from working with her husband. She’d think out the designs and have someone else render them. She also had a talent for finding good talent, hiring young Suzanne Belperron in 1921 and, when Suzanne left in 1931, the talented Juliette Moutarde took her place.
Suzanne Belperron opened her own jewelry design firm with Bernard Herz, and later, his son, Jean, in a partnership that lasted over 40 years. Her designs were so distinctive–very fluid and organic. Even while those around her embraced Art Deco, with its straight lines, Suzanne elevated a more modern design. Famous women like the Duchess of Windsor and Mona Williams (pictured below) bought her jewelry. Her work was never signed, though. She always said that her style was her signature.

Sketch and finished piece by Suzanne Belperron

Juliette Moutarde worked with Jeanne and Germaine at House Boivin until they sold the company in 1976. Jeanne had died in 1959, but her daughter, a talented jewelry designer in her own right, kept the business going. Throughout these successful years, custom pieces were never signed by the individual artists. Perhaps it was seen as too bold, too assertive, for a woman to sign her work back in the early 1900s.

Design attributed to Moutarde, made for Claudette Colbert in 1936.

But because of these women, and a few others like Italian Elsa Schiaparelli, female jewelry designers today feel empowered to open their own studios, sign their names to their pieces, and earn their own success in the design world. Thanks to these pioneers, we know names like Paloma Picasso, Elsa Peretti, and Ippolita Rostagno, who have had their own jewelry lines for decades. And because of THEM, contemporary female designers–from Kendra Scott and Irene Neuwirth to Farah Khan Ali and Erica Courtney find success in the always competitive jewelry industry.

contemporary Ippolita design

Today we don’t think much about gender when choosing a designer. If you like the creation, you respect the designer! But it wasn’t always like that, and I wanted to lift up the courage of Jeanne Bouvin and her team of female designers. They worked and made their way successfully in a male world. Good for them and thank goodness for us. Their combination of talent and determination allowed women who came after to enter the field with confidence. Because of that, I want to nominate Jeanne Poiret Boivin for Mother of Female Jewelry Designers!

My Tourmaline

In 1890 an author named Saxe Holm wrote a charming story entitled, My Tourmaline.  The young heroine possesses a crystal of tourmaline, which she finds in the roots of a large tree.  It brings her good fortune until she loses it.  Bereft until she finally finds it in someone else’s collection, she and her tourmaline are eventually re-united and live “happily ever after.” 

What is it about tourmaline that makes people feel so connected to it?  One reason is because of all the colors it comes in.  There is no other mineral that comes in as many hues.  This rainbow quality translates to a lightness and happiness that appeals to all.  It also suggests tolerance, flexibility and a compassionate understanding.  The Sri Lankans named the gem, “turamali”, meaning a stone of mixed colors.  

A rainbow of gemstones, all of them are tourmaline.

Another quality of tourmaline is its pyroelectricity.  If heated, it actually has magnetic properties.  As a result, the mineral has many industrial uses.  You can find it in hairdryers to calm static hair, in joint wraps to promote blood circulation, and in tuning circuits for conducting TV and radio frequencies.  In the metaphysical world, tourmaline is seen as a strong protector, reflecting negativity away from anyone possessing the stone.  It’s also seen as a grounding stone that promotes a sense of power and self-confidence.  

Finally, tourmaline is a popular gemstone, featured prominently as the birthstone for October and the anniversary stone for the 8th and 38th anniversaries.   It has a hardness of 7 – 7.5 on the Mohs scale, so it’s durable enough to be set in rings.  It’s not as expensive as ruby, emerald, or sapphire, but it can sometimes mimic these colors.  And it’s mined on almost every continent– from the state of Maine to the island of Madagascar.  

You may own a tourmaline and not even know it, because the gem has so many trade names.  If you own a rubellite, an indicolite, a verdelite, a siberite, an achroite, or a paraiba, you actually own a tourmaline. You may also have a bi-colored or parti-colored tourmaline, a watermelon tourmaline, or even tourmalinated quartz!  There are so many different looks to this versatile mineral.  If these pictures are motivating you to own a tourmaline (or a second one), stop in our store.  We’d be happy to introduce you to the ones in our showcase.

Parti-colored tourmaline

Watermelon tourmaline earrings with rubellite and green tourmaline: custom-made by our benchjewelers

 

Tourmalinated Quartz: The black crystals are the tourmaline, also called schorl.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Watermelon tourmaline, carved into butterfly wings, and made into a pendant by our benchjewelers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Michigan Gemstone

A large polished piece of Greenstone

A large polished piece of Greenstone

In late September I was in Swede’s, the famous light blue jewelry and rock store in the middle of Copper Harbor, Michigan. The feisty woman in charge, 83-year-old Mary Billings, asked me as I walked in–“What is the gemstone of Michigan?”

When I answered, “Isle Royale Greenstone,” she looked at me with new respect.

“You’re only the thirteenth customer this season who has answered that question correctly.  And we’ve had a lot of people who’ve  walked through that door.”  She shook her head, a little disgusted that Michiganders weren’t commonly aware of their state gemstone.

Most people, if they have any idea at all, would probably say Petoskey is the state’s gem.  And it IS the state rock.  But Isle Royale Greenstone, or just Greenstone, has been Michigan’s official gem since 1973.  Found mainly on Isle Royale or the Keweenaw Peninsula, Greenstone has the fancy, scientific name of Chlorastrolite, which is a variety of the mineral Pumpellyite.  It’s often found in and around copper mines, which are abundant in the Keweenaw.  The mineral makes its home in amygdaloidal basalt.  If you’re like me, that phrase holds no meaning.  I had to look it up, so I’m happy to share its meaning.  Basically it’s a pit or cavity in the stone.  So amygdaloidal basalt is cooled and hardened lava with lots of cavities in it that have been filled in with minerals.

Once the Greenstone is removed from its host rock, it can be cut and polished.  But it’s a tricky stone to work with because it’s not really hard–only a 5-6 on the Mohs’ Scale– and it can have its own cavities and hollow spots within it.  Cutters want to expose the best “turtle-back” pattern that they can and eliminate any bad spots.  But removing a top layer of the stone is likely to reveal a different, and not necessarily better pattern. The goal is a clear pattern showing some chatoyancy.  The best stones will demonstrate that change in luster as they are tilted back and forth in the light.

Tumbled Greenstone with pink Thomsonite

Tumbled Greenstone with pink Thomsonite

Greenstone is not a particularly expensive gemstone to buy.  Even with the labor involved in finding, mining, and cutting it, there’s just not a huge market for the material.  But it isn’t an easy gem to own.  Since the year 2000, it’s been illegal to take Isle Royale Greenstone off the island. The island is, after all, a national park.  And even Keweenaw Greenstone isn’t easy to get unless you have access to the copper mine areas.  Most jewelry stores, even in Michigan, don’t carry Greenstone.  So plan on spending some time searching for your perfect piece of Michigan’s gemstone.  Whether you spend time looking along the shoreline for a rare small piece of it, or whether you search for jewelry stores that carry the gem, enjoy the journey.

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My piece of Keweenaw Greenstone! I love it!!

The New Birthstone- August’s Spinel

 

Natural Spinel

Natural Spinel

I have some very good news for all of you born in August.  Just recently, the American Gem Trade Association and Jewelers of America announced that SPINEL has been added to the birthstone list as an alternative to peridot.  Not everyone is a fan of peridot’s yellowish-green color, and the gem stone has a narrow range of hue.  Spinel, on the other hand, comes in almost every color of the rainbow!  The most prized color is red.  Pink and blue are two other popular hues.  So, because spinel is a relatively unknown gemstone and because changes to the birthstone list don’t happen often, it seemed important to write about it.

Peridot

Peridot

Many people have never heard of spinel.  It was recognized as a separate mineral about 200 years ago, but, until then, red spinel was often mistaken for ruby.  Some famous gems, like the Black Prince’s Ruby, which is set in England’s Imperial State Crown, are actually red spinel.  Those who have heard of it often associate it with something “cheap” or “common.”  Synthetic (aka man-made) spinel has been used for years to make the stones for high school class rings because it’s inexpensive to produce in lots of different colors that mimic birthstones like emerald, ruby, and sapphire.  Synthetic spinel is also used as the top, bottom, or both of a “triplet” that substitutes for a natural gemstone.

Natural spinel is a beautiful mineral made of magnesium, aluminum, and oxygen.  It’s colorless unless a trace element such as chromium, iron, or cobalt makes its way into the recipe.  Chromium leads to a pink or red spinel.  Iron and cobalt lead to violet and blue spinels.  A combination of trace elements produces orange or purple spinels.  These colors need no enhancement, so spinel is rarely heat-treated or irradiated.  It’s a fairly hard gemstone, scoring 8 on the Mohs Scale, and it forms in the cubic crystal system.  These qualities mean that spinel is hard enough to take a good polish and easy enough to cut and facet.  And the gem is usually eye-clean when it comes to inclusions.

Spinel is traditionally associated with Asia–especially Myanmar, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka.  More recently deposits have been found in Tanzania and Madagascar.  Large crystals are quite rare, so the value goes up exponentially, not only for great color but also for size.  While not as expensive as fine ruby or pink sapphire, natural spinel is not an inexpensive gem.  Red spinel would cost approximately 30% of the cost of a similarly sized ruby.  And pink spinel would be about 85% of the cost of a same size pink sapphire.  It’s not easy to find spinel in a jewelry store.  Maybe that will change now that it’s a birthstone, but, up until now, it’s been more of a collector’s stone.

So, take heart all of you who longed for another birthstone! It’s spinel to the rescue!!  Ask your jewelry store for a peek at its spinel.  Here’s a peek at ours.

1.28 carat pink spinel

1.28 carat pink spinel

Quartz-So Common and yet so Special

Flawless Quartz Crystal Sphere at the Smithsonian Natural History Museum (106.75 lbs)

Flawless Quartz Crystal Sphere at the Smithsonian Natural History Museum (106.75 lbs)

This crystal sphere is the largest cut piece of  flawless quartz in the world, weighing in at 242,323 carats!  It symbolizes our fascination with something so beautiful and yet so common.  Quartz is found around the world, in large quantities, and is considered one of the most common minerals on Earth.  It’s found in sand, dirt, and dust.  Yet, when fashioned by gem cutters and put in a stunning piece of jewelry, it can be breathtaking.

Quartz is a complicated gemstone.  One of the reasons it’s tricky is because the term “quartz” is used for varieties of gems, as well as for a species of gem and as a group of gems.  So, for example, Rose Quartz is a variety of the species Quartz.  So is Citrine, Amethyst, and Tiger’s Eye!  All these varieties, and others that are couched under the species of Chalcedony, such as Agate and Jasper, are considered to be members of the group, Quartz.  Very confusing!!

Perhaps it’s best to start with the fact that mineralogists and geologists see any mineral with the chemical makeup of silicon dioxide, SiO2, as Quartz.  Regardless of whether the crystals making up that stone are large, small, or microscopic, it’s all Quartz.  Gemologists, on the other hand, separate the gems into those whose crystals are larger and those too small to see without a high-powered microscope.  Those with larger crystals are called Quartz and those with microcrystalline structures are labeled Chalcedony.

Under these two species are many varieties that are used in jewelry.  Probably the most commonly known variety of the quartz species is Amethyst.  That regal purple has been admired for centuries.  The purple color comes from natural irradiation acting upon a trace element of iron.  The saturated, medium to deep reddish purple is the most prized color, but amethyst ranges from a light, pinkish purple to that deep purple hue.  Amethyst is not rare, but the prized color is more rare because usually only the tips of the amethyst crystals have that depth of color.

Agate and Amethyst, showing the deep purple tips of the quartz crystals, as well as the microcrystalline Agate, which is part of the Chalcedony species.

Agate and Amethyst, showing the deep purple tips of the quartz crystals, as well as the microcrystalline Agate, which is part of the Chalcedony species.

Other varieties of the Quartz species include Citrine, the orange-yellow gemstone that’s November’s birthstone, and Rock Crystal, which is colorless because it has no trace elements.  There’s also Rose Quartz, Smoky Quartz, Prasiolite (aka Green Amethyst), and Ametrine (a bi-colored gem combining the purple of Amethyst and the yellow of Citrine).

Members the Chalcedony species have been used in jewelry even longer than Amethyst!  Agates, which exhibit wavy bands of color, were used in amulets and talismans over 3000 years ago.  They were also used to make cameos.  Carvers would reveal a differently colored band by carving down around the subject of the piece.  Today you’ll see agate slice pendants that are sometimes dyed to accentuate the banding.

Probably the most valuable member of the Chalcedony species is Chrysoprase.  This translucent gemstone is beloved for its natural apple-green color.  It owes its color to the presence of  nickel.  A big discovery of Chrysoprase was made in 1965 in Australia.  Because its color can resemble fine jadeite, it’s sometimes called “Australian Jade.”

Chrysoprase cabochon

Chrysoprase cabochon

Other varieties of the Chalcedony species include Black Onyx (dyed black chalcedony), Carnelian, Jasper, and Fire Agate.  Most chalcedony is translucent to opaque, so it’s rarely faceted.  Most often it’s fashioned into beads, slices or cabochons.  But, just like all Quartz, it registers a 7 on the Mohs Hardness Scale, making it a good choice for rings and bracelets as well as earrings and pendants.

There’s so much that can be said about this beautiful mineral that surrounds us everyday.  But I want to end with the sentiment– “How wonderful when something so common can also be so special!”

Custom-made Ametrine Ring in our showcase!

Custom-made Ametrine Ring in our showcase!

 

The Story of Campbellite

campbellite

I’ve lived most of my life in Michigan and my maiden name is Campbell.  Most people don’t know that because I’ve been married so long!  But I always thought Campbell was a good name, so I was both happy and surprised to learn that there is a gemstone named after. . .no, not me, nor my kinfolk, but after the Campbell shaft of the well known Bisbee Mine in Southern Arizona.

So, what’s the story of Campbellite?  As explained by one of the stone cutters at Arizona Lapidary, Campbellite is an uncertain  mixture of minerals like cuprite, azurite, malachite, calcite,chrysocolla, pyrite, quartz, and copper.  Its color and look varies because there’s no set amount of these minerals.  It was first discovered by miners looking for copper.  The bosses weren’t interested in this unusual rock, and told the miners to discard it.  But the miners had a different plan.  They saw its beauty.  So, yes, they dumped the Campbellite in the trashcan.  But they separated it carefully from the real trash.  And when no one was looking, they loaded the discarded gem into the back ends of pickups.  Campbellite has been showing up in the market, piece by piece.  There’s not a lot of it–I’m sure plenty WAS dumped.  The mine closed in 1975, and there is no other known source of Campbellite.  But I bought one piece of it, cut into a smooth cabochon, and plan to make a bolo tie for my dad.

I learned a little bit about the mine shaft itself.  It was first developed in 1927, originally as a way to get oxygen to other parts of the Bisbee Mine.  But soon it was one of the best producers of copper ore, with yields of 8-10% copper.

Finally, who is the Campbell shaft named after?  A little research revealed an amazing coincidence.  The shaft was named after Gordon R. Campbell, who actually lived and went to school in Michigan!  He graduated from U of M in 1893 and was a mining executive and lawyer up in the Keweenaw Peninsula.  The Keweenaw Peninsula, jutting from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, is one of the best known sources of copper world-wide.   Towns like Calumet, Houghton, and Copper Harbor were booming back in the mid-1800s because of copper.  Anyway, Gordon Campbell helped form the Calumet and Arizona Mining Company in 1901, serving as the company’s President from 1921-1931.   It was this company that operated the Bisbee Mine.  So Campbellite WAS named for a Campbell living in Michigan.  Who knows?  Maybe he’s a long, lost cousin?

The Campbell shaft, courtesy of the Arizona Historical Society

The Campbell shaft, courtesy of the Arizona Historical Society

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Anatomy of a Ring

Engagement Ring - Wedding Band - Michigan

The other day a customer came in to get her ring sized.  She was amazed and somewhat alarmed to learn that our bench jewelers would be cutting her ring with a saw blade in order to size it.  Her beautiful ring–a piece of art–subjected to the saw!  But jewelry is more than art and more than an expression of sentiment.  It’s also a piece of engineering.  It’s built with shanks and prongs, bails and bezels, and many other findings.  It’s adjusted or repaired with the use of tools like saws, hammers, and torches.  Using rings as our example, let’s explore the Anatomy of a piece of jewelry.

MOUNTING: This is the general name for the metal that holds the stone(s) in place and encircles your finger to keep the ring on your finger.

SHANK: This refers to just the curved part of the ring that goes around your finger.  Shanks can have profiles(or cross-sections) that can be quite flat to very round.  The width of the shank can also vary.  And the shape of the shank, while usually circular, could be oval or even rectangular.  A EURO-SHANK is curved on the sides but has a squared off bottom.  There are adjustable shanks, too, which operate with hinges, allowing more room for a ring to slide over the knuckle. 

SETTING: Sometimes a synonym for mounting, a setting probably refers more to how the stone(s) are held in place.  Setting techniques include prong or shared prong set, bead set, tension set, channel set, bar set, flush set, bezel set, pave set, and invisible set. 

PRONG: Tiny metal wires that suspend the stone, holding it in little “claws” (HEAD), so that light can enter the diamond from all sides. 

BEZEL: A frame of precious metal that surrounds the stone, bezels can be thin like a wire or wide so that the side of stone is unseen. 

FINISH: Whether the metal is shiny or more dull depends on the finish.  You can have a polished finish, which is shiny or a matte finish, which is smooth but less shiny.  Other finishes like satin, hammered, engraved or stone can give texture to the surface of the ring.

MILLGRAIN: This is a common embellishment on the shank of a ring.  It’s a border of tiny beads that acts as a boundary or edging.

I could go on–there seems to be about ten- thousand terms that bench jewelers use.  I learn a new one almost every day.  Instead, let’s re-cap with a picture and save Anatomy 102 for another day.  The important thing to glean from today is that jewelry is a designed and constructed piece of art.  It’s engineered to be art that you can wear.

Engagement Ring with an Engraved Finish

Engagement Ring with an Engraved Finish