The Language of Gemstones

Gemstones are part of my life.  I’m around them all day at work!  But many people feel that their interaction with gems and jewels is minimal.  Our language, however, is quite “loaded” with references to gems.  This pervasiveness means that it’s literally impossible to live life without some knowledge of gems.  

Many women, and some MEN!, are named after gemstones.  Have you ever met an Amber, a Ruby, or a Jade?  Other well-known names include Beryl, Pearl, Opal, Jett, and Jasper.  Names like Gemma and Crystal aren’t gemstone names, per se, but they mimic the idea of gems.  And there are plenty of less-common names like Jacinth, Sapphire, and Garnet.

Beryl Markham, Aviatrix, and character in the movie, Out of Africa

Pearl S Buck, author of The Good Earth

 

 

 

 

 

Amber Tamblyn, actress. Starred in Two and a Half Men

Companies like Crayola and Pantene have borrowed names from gemstones to describe their colors.  Do you remember coloring with crayons labeled Aquamarine or Amethyst?  What about Pantene’s Color of the Year last year–Rose Quartz!  Names like Ruby, Emerald, or Turquoise bring colors vividly to mind.  The gemstone names can be colorful adjectives, and the entertainment industry has used them for years.  Remember Dorothy in the Wizard of Oz with her RUBY red slippers? Or how about Dolly Parton singing about Jolene and her eyes of EMERALD green?  

Even gemstones with little or no color get used a lot in our language.  Diamond is the most popular gemstone used in songwriting.  Pearl is the runner-up.  Over 1200 songs were counted as having the word, Diamond.  Rhianna has a recent song, “Diamonds”, which, I’m sure, is quite popular.  My mind goes back to my 8th grade synchronized swimming program, when we swam to “Diamonds Are a Girl’s Best Friend” by Ethel Merman.  (I guess that dates me, doesn’t it?)

There are sayings and quotations about gemstones.  For example, “Diamond in the Rough” means that something or someone is valuable and good, but not polished or finished.  “Pearls of Wisdom” means rare and worthy words of advice.  Even the Bible contributes to the list with “Pearls before Swine” which talks about not giving out words or things of great value to those who won’t appreciate them.  In general, gemstones are used as synonyms for something or someone rare, valuable, and special.  

I love these funny quotations about gemstones and jewelry that I came across while researching for this blog.

Diamonds are only chunks of coal, that stuck to their jobs, you see.    by Minnie Richard Smith

Jewelry takes people’s minds off your wrinkles.  by Sonja Henie

I think men who have a pierced ear are better prepared for marriage.  They’ve experienced pain and bought jewelry.    by Rita Rudner

But I want to end with a reference to gemstones that we all learned from early in our youth.  This is proof, in my opinion,  that one can’t go through life without some knowledge of gems:

Twinkle, twinkle little star– How I wonder what you are.  Up above the world so high–Like a diamond in the sky. Twinkle, twinkle little star–How I wonder what you are. 

History of Birthstones

garnet

Garnet: January birthstone

Most of my life I’ve wished I was born a few days earlier, mainly because my birthstone would be an emerald instead of pearl or alexandrite.  When it came time to buy my high school class ring, I chose the emerald green stone rather than the pale purple one.  When my husband and I designed our 30-year anniversary ring, we designed it with an emerald for the center stone, even though pearl is the traditional gift for the 30-year anniversary.  As you can see, I’ve always just gone with what I wanted rather than what I was ‘supposed’ to want.  But my decisions got me to thinking about the origin of birthstones.  Who deemed that each month be represented by a different gemstone?  When was this decision made?  And why?

My research on these questions has revealed an interesting and somewhat nonsensical journey.  Most sources say that the idea of birthstones started with the Bible and Aaron’s breastplate.  Aaron had 12 stones in his breastplate, representing the 12 tribes of Israel.  No one knows for sure what the 12 stones were, but chances are high that they were pretty rocks, like jasper or lapis.  These are rocks that were native to the area.

A first century historian named Josephus supposedly made the numeric connection between the 12 stones and the 12 months of the year.  For centuries the idea was to have 12 stones, carrying a different one each month.  They weren’t really birthstones because they weren’t associated with the owner’s birth.  They were associated with months of the year.  The individual stones were supposed to bring good luck and good health during each one’s specific month.

But somewhere along the way, the idea changed.  Experts say that between the 15th and 18th centuries, people began to see themselves as having one stone, corresponding to the month of their birth, that would bring them good fortune.  These stones, with a few exceptions, are very different from the birthstones of today.  Have you ever heard of bloodstone?  It’s an opaque green stone with red spots.  It was the birthstone for March.  How about sardonyx?  That’s a banded, rusty brown-colored, translucent chalcedony that was the birthstone for August.

Bloodstone: March birthstone

Bloodstone: March birthstone

Sardonyx: August birthstone

Sardonyx: August birthstone

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1912, Jewelers of America, an association with a definite interest in marketing gemstones, sought to standardize the list.  The official list of birthstones had garnet, amethyst, aquamarine, diamond, emerald, pearl, ruby, peridot, sapphire, opal, topaz (the orange-yellow-brown kind), and turquoise.  Some of the months had two birthstones, partly in deference to the traditional stones.  So March had aquamarine AND bloodstone.  August had peridot AND sardonyx.  But, let’s face it, if you were born in March, which gem would you rather have?  A transparent medium blue one or an opaque dark green one with red blemishes?  It didn’t take long to drop these traditional choices.

The 1912 list has had few changes in the last 100+ years.  In 1952, alexandrite was added as a birthstone for June and citrine was added as a birthstone for November.  December’s traditional birthstone of lapis lazuli was replaced with blue zircon.  In 2002, tanzanite, the blue-purple gemstone that had been discovered in 1967, was added to the list for December.  And, most recently, in 2016, spinel was added as a birthstone for August.

Why the additions?  Many people would say it’s a marketing move.  Birthstones aren’t really seen as bringing good luck or good health anymore.   They don’t have the significance they used to have.  They’re just fun.  So why not have more choices?  I’m really happy for all you August babies who no longer feel confined to the yellowish-green of peridot.  Spinel offers great variety! (See my blog on spinel–July 28, 2016).

So, what do we make of this idea of birthstones?  To me it sounds like a complicated game of Telephone.  Do you remember that game when someone whispers a phrase to someone else, and it goes around the circle?  The final uttering of the phrase bears no resemblance to the original.  That’s how I feel birthstones came to be.  From Aaron’s breastplate to the writings of Josephus to the Jewelers’ list, it’s a crazy, convoluted path. But this is where we are and what we have.  My suggestion?  Adopt your favorite gemstone, the one that has meaning to you,  and make it YOUR birthstone.

amethyst

Amethyst: February birthstone

Understanding Gemstone Treatments

Paraiba tourmalines photographed from the GIA Collection for the CIBJO project from the Dr. Eduard J. Gubelin Collection.

Paraiba tourmalines photographed from the GIA Collection for the CIBJO project from the Dr. Eduard J. Gubelin Collection.

This blog is the first of a series on gemstone treatments.  The truth is, all gemstones have been modified by man.  We’d like to think that a gemstone’s beauty is completely natural, but the reality is man plays a part.  Cutting and polishing bring out the sparkle and color.  Shaping and setting is all done by man.  So a gemstone’s beauty can be attributed to both man and nature.  Each consumer must decide what level of man’s contribution is acceptable.  Everyone sees that man must be involved to some degree, but opinions vary on enhancements such as irradiation, dyeing, or fracture-filling.  Is there a point where man’s contribution to a gemstone’s beauty goes over the fine line, when the stone just doesn’t seem natural anymore?

Another fine line is the one jewelers walk everyday when conversing with customers about gemstones.  There are laws and guidelines, set by the government and the AGTA (American Gem Trade Association), for disclosure of gemstone treatments.  But jewelers adhering to those guidelines also have to make sales in order to stay in business.  Some customers are truly interested in learning about how gemstones arrive at their beautiful state.  But many would be bored by a lesson in gemstone treatments and might walk away from a sales representative who insisted on giving all the details.  Certainly anyone who sells jewelry should honestly answer customer questions about gemstone enhancements or treatments.  We want our customers to understand as much as they’d like to understand about gemstone treatments.  We want them to understand that, if treatments didn’t exist, most of us would be unable to afford pretty gemstones.

So that’s what the series will be about.  It will give you an overview of some of the main treatments on some of the most common gemstones in the market.  The series will also discuss some gemstones that are not treated–ONLY cut, polished, and set.  If you find this fascinating, I will include some sources for learning more.  And remember, if you want to know more about the gemstone you’re buying, just ask.