Every year, since 1984, the AGTA (American Gem Trade Association) hosts competitions to bring out the best jewelry designers and stone cutters in the industry. Qualified judges are selected to narrow the many entries down to first, second, third, and, sometimes, fourth place finishers. The Spectrum Awards and the Cutting Edge Awards are considered the world’s preeminent competitions for design with colored gemstones and cultured pearls.
Here at Dearborn Jewelers, we design a lot of jewelry, both to sell in the store and for individual customers. We purchase colored gemstones to put into our designs, and the cutting of those gemstones is of ultimate importance. If a stone isn’t cut properly, it will not reflect light well and could look ‘sleepy’. A great stone cutter can add tremendous value to the gemstones he/she cuts.
This year saw an increase in the number of loose gemstones that were entered in the Cutting Edge competition. According to Douglas Hucker, CEO of the American Gem Trade Association, “diversity was evidenced in the absolute cornucopia of color and variety.” The entries were placed into one of four groups– 1) Classic Gemstones; 2) All Other Faceted; 3) Innovative Faceting; and 4) Carving. Five judges, well-known in the jewelry industry, were selected to select the winners. The competition was held in New York City on August 4-5, 2018. Our congratulations goes to the winners! And here they are:
Classic Gemstone-1st Place (PRNewsfoto/AGTA)
This 91.36 carat gem is an unheated yellow Ceylon Sapphire, cut by Kenneth Blount.
All Other Faceted-1st Place. (PRNewsfoto/AGTA)
Cut by Mikola Kukharuk, this oval tsavorite Garnet is 80.25 carats.
Innovative Faceting-1st Place (PRNewsfoto/AGTA)
Mark Gronlund took the honor for Innovative Faceting, with this 96.30 carat round spiral brilliant-cut Topaz.
Carving-1st Place (PRNews/AGTA)
This carving of a Frog Prince looking out over his lily pad pond features Sunstone, Sapphires, Diamonds, Opals, black and green Jade, Chalcedony, Calcite, and 14K yellow gold. Created by Dalan Hargrave.
Padparadscha sapphires are more popular than ever, thanks to Princess Eugenie of York and her fiance, Jack Brooksbank. Her engagement ring, which the two designed together, holds an estimated 5 carat padparadscha, and is surrounded by 10 round and 2 pear-shaped diamonds. Because padparadscha sapphires are the most rare of all sapphires, and because they’re seldom cut above 2 carats, Princess Eugenie’s stone is a world class gem. The estimated value of her ring is $175,000.
Jack Brooksbank, Princess Eugenie, and her engagement ring
The two tie the knot on October 12, 2018 in beautiful St. George’s Chapel at Windsor Castle. Although the ceremony is rumored to be at least as grand as Prince Harry and Meghan Markle’s wedding, it’s uncertain whether those of us who live outside the U.K. will be able to watch the wedding ceremony. The BBC, the major broadcasting station in the U.K. declined to televise Princess Eugenie’s wedding, thinking that the number of viewers would not justify the cost of production. Another, more local British station, is planning to televise the full wedding, so we’ll have to see whether the ceremony airs here in the U.S.
Padparadscha is a variety of sapphire based on hue and saturation of color. And these traits can be subjective! Narrowly defined, a padparadscha is supposed to be from Sri Lanka and it’s supposed to be pinkish-orange or orangish-pink. It does not have to be highly saturated and, in fact, a delicate color is preferred. But where exactly is the line between an orange sapphire, a pink sapphire, and a padparadscha sapphire? Even gemologists have a hard time agreeing on a uniform standard for this gem. Because the premium for a padparadscha is so high, there is incentive to stretch the narrow definition.
While Sri Lanka is the traditional source for padparadscha sapphires, other countries such as Vietnam, Tanzania, and Madagascar also produce them. The name, “padparadscha”, comes from the native language of Sri Lanka and means lotus blossom. A lotus flower is a little more pink than peach, so some people talk about the hue of a padparadscha as being a “sunset color mixed with a lotus flower.” Well-known author and gemologist, Richard Hughes, calls it “a marriage between ruby and yellow sapphire.” However it’s defined, a padparadscha sapphire is a beautiful gem and well deserving of the extra attention it’s receiving!
Padparadschas showing the narrow range of hue
The accent stone(s) is an important part of some jewelry. It’s meant to enhance the beauty of the center stone and provide added interest to the jewelry. Diamonds are the most often used gem for accentuating a piece of jewelry. They “go” with every other gem, and they add sparkle and richness. But, what if you want something different for your accent stones? Are there rules or best practices that apply when choosing accent stones?
An important guideline to follow when creating jewelry is to make sure the accent stones don’t compete with the center stone for attention. Features such as size, cut, polish, and color should all be considered. The size of an accent stone should always be smaller than the center stone, but there are many acceptable proportions. Cut and polish of the accent stones can be similar or quite different from the center stone. For example, I love the look of this rough drusy quartz with the polished and faceted diamonds. But the smoothly polished chrysocolla and turquoise pendant is also pleasing to the eye.
Sleeping Drusy Quartz with Diamond Accents
Chrysocolla and Turquoise Cabochon Pendant
The study of color starts with the color wheel. There are terms for colors that look good together, such as complementary or analogous colors. Complementary colors are opposite each other on the color wheel, and analogous colors are adjacent. Monochromatic colors are different tints or tones of the same color. For example, blue and orange are good colors together. And blue with green can be a vibrant combination. But dark blue can look great with light blue, too!
In the end, your eye is the best judge of what colors look good together. So much depends on the exact tint and hue of each gem. Some people prefer bold, saturated colors while other people prefer pastels. Don’t be afraid to experiment with the hues of accent stones. Here are some suggestions for accents to put with birthstone gems.
- January – Red Garnet paired with Yellow-Green Peridot
- February – Violet Amethyst paired with Yellow Citrine (Note: Ametrine is the natural pairing of these two.)
- March – Aquamarine paired with Pink Tourmaline
- April – Diamond pairs with anything, but consider Blue Zircon for its high dispersion of light (aka Sparkle!)
- May – vivid Emerald paired with another vivid gem, Blue Sapphire
- June – Pearl, often used as accent itself, would pair well with the pastel hues of Morganite
- July – Ruby, another vivid stone, would look great with Emerald as long as you’re okay with Christmas colors. If not, consider Pink Sapphire, with its less saturated,monochromatic hue, as an accent gem.
- August – Green Peridot paired with Ethiopian Opal
- September – Blue Sapphire paired with Orange Spessertine Garnet
- October – Precious Opal, if white, would pair well with Pink Spinel or Tourmaline. If the Precious Opal is black, it would pair better with Emerald or Sapphire.
- November – Yellow Citrine paired with Red Garnet
- December – Robin’s Egg Blue Turquoise paired with Black Spinel or Diamonds
I recently helped create a Lavender Star Sapphire ring. The sapphire had a very pale hue, as star sapphires often do. The goal was to enhance its color with effective accents. We chose faceted trillion amethysts, fairly light in color but more colorful than the sapphire. When the three were side by side, it really helped the Star Sapphire appear more lavender. This can be another great use of accent stones.
Star Sapphire with Light Amethysts
Choosing accent gems for your next jewelry project can be lots of fun. Diamonds are wonderful, and they’ll never lose their appeal as an accent stone, but there are lots of other possibilities. We’d be happy to help you figure out your options.
Gemstones are part of my life. I’m around them all day at work! But many people feel that their interaction with gems and jewels is minimal. Our language, however, is quite “loaded” with references to gems. This pervasiveness means that it’s literally impossible to live life without some knowledge of gems.
Many women, and some MEN!, are named after gemstones. Have you ever met an Amber, a Ruby, or a Jade? Other well-known names include Beryl, Pearl, Opal, Jett, and Jasper. Names like Gemma and Crystal aren’t gemstone names, per se, but they mimic the idea of gems. And there are plenty of less-common names like Jacinth, Sapphire, and Garnet.
Beryl Markham, Aviatrix, and character in the movie, Out of Africa
Pearl S Buck, author of The Good Earth
Amber Tamblyn, actress. Starred in Two and a Half Men
Companies like Crayola and Pantene have borrowed names from gemstones to describe their colors. Do you remember coloring with crayons labeled Aquamarine or Amethyst? What about Pantene’s Color of the Year last year–Rose Quartz! Names like Ruby, Emerald, or Turquoise bring colors vividly to mind. The gemstone names can be colorful adjectives, and the entertainment industry has used them for years. Remember Dorothy in the Wizard of Oz with her RUBY red slippers? Or how about Dolly Parton singing about Jolene and her eyes of EMERALD green?
Even gemstones with little or no color get used a lot in our language. Diamond is the most popular gemstone used in songwriting. Pearl is the runner-up. Over 1200 songs were counted as having the word, Diamond. Rhianna has a recent song, “Diamonds”, which, I’m sure, is quite popular. My mind goes back to my 8th grade synchronized swimming program, when we swam to “Diamonds Are a Girl’s Best Friend” by Ethel Merman. (I guess that dates me, doesn’t it?)
There are sayings and quotations about gemstones. For example, “Diamond in the Rough” means that something or someone is valuable and good, but not polished or finished. “Pearls of Wisdom” means rare and worthy words of advice. Even the Bible contributes to the list with “Pearls before Swine” which talks about not giving out words or things of great value to those who won’t appreciate them. In general, gemstones are used as synonyms for something or someone rare, valuable, and special.
I love these funny quotations about gemstones and jewelry that I came across while researching for this blog.
Diamonds are only chunks of coal, that stuck to their jobs, you see. by Minnie Richard Smith
Jewelry takes people’s minds off your wrinkles. by Sonja Henie
I think men who have a pierced ear are better prepared for marriage. They’ve experienced pain and bought jewelry. by Rita Rudner
But I want to end with a reference to gemstones that we all learned from early in our youth. This is proof, in my opinion, that one can’t go through life without some knowledge of gems:
Twinkle, twinkle little star– How I wonder what you are. Up above the world so high–Like a diamond in the sky. Twinkle, twinkle little star–How I wonder what you are.
Ultra Violet, Pantone’s 2018 Color of the Year
In December, Pantone came out with its Color of the Year. This year it’s Ultra Violet. My mind goes to the gemstones that exhibit this glorious hue. Many people will think of Amethyst and Tanzanite. I’d like to introduce some other options– two gems most people have never heard of and two gems most people have heard of but never in this hue.
SUGILITE was first identified in 1944 by Ken-ichi Sugi from Japan. But gem quality Sugilite wasn’t discovered until 1979 in South Africa, making it a very new gem in the jewelry industry. The color ranges from a pinkish purple to a deep bluish-purple. The hardness is between 5.5-6.5 on the Mohs scale. Sugilite is generally cut as a cabochon because it’s opaque. It usually has veining and a mottled appearance.
CHAROITE is another “young” stone. Named after the Chara River in Eastern Siberia, the only place it’s ever been found, it was discovered in the 1940s but not really known until 1978. The stone ranges from lavender to purple in color, is usually opaque, and is readily identified by its swirling, fibrous appearance. Considered a rock rather than a mineral, its hardness on the Mohs scale is listed as 5 – 6.
JADEITE has been known and valued for centuries. It comes in many colors, not just green. Lavender jade is beautiful! It can be semitransparent to opaque and is usually cut into cabochons or beads. It comes from many different places–Myanmar, New Zealand, Russia, and Canada to name a few. Jade is a harder, tougher stone than either Sugilite or Charoite. But it also has the possibility of being dyed, which brings down the value. Neither Sugilite nor Charoite undergo treatments. Always ask if the jadeite has been treated or enhanced before you buy!
PURPLE SAPPHIRE is very rare, coming usually from Sri Lanka or Madagascar. Again, sapphire has been valued as a gemstone for centuries, but most people don’t know that it comes in so many different colors. Most sapphire is heat-treated, but purple, lavender, and violet sapphires usually don’t need to be. Purple sapphire has a Mohs hardness of 9, so it’s the most durable of the options presented here. Because it’s hard and transparent, this gem is usually faceted. Not surprisingly, it’s also the most expensive option listed.
Amethyst and Tanzanite are lovely purple gems, and they would work well with this year’s fashions. But now you have LOTS of options if you want to be “styling” with the Color of the Year!
Garnet: January birthstone
Most of my life I’ve wished I was born a few days earlier, mainly because my birthstone would be an emerald instead of pearl or alexandrite. When it came time to buy my high school class ring, I chose the emerald green stone rather than the pale purple one. When my husband and I designed our 30-year anniversary ring, we designed it with an emerald for the center stone, even though pearl is the traditional gift for the 30-year anniversary. As you can see, I’ve always just gone with what I wanted rather than what I was ‘supposed’ to want. But my decisions got me to thinking about the origin of birthstones. Who deemed that each month be represented by a different gemstone? When was this decision made? And why?
My research on these questions has revealed an interesting and somewhat nonsensical journey. Most sources say that the idea of birthstones started with the Bible and Aaron’s breastplate. Aaron had 12 stones in his breastplate, representing the 12 tribes of Israel. No one knows for sure what the 12 stones were, but chances are high that they were pretty rocks, like jasper or lapis. These are rocks that were native to the area.
A first century historian named Josephus supposedly made the numeric connection between the 12 stones and the 12 months of the year. For centuries the idea was to have 12 stones, carrying a different one each month. They weren’t really birthstones because they weren’t associated with the owner’s birth. They were associated with months of the year. The individual stones were supposed to bring good luck and good health during each one’s specific month.
But somewhere along the way, the idea changed. Experts say that between the 15th and 18th centuries, people began to see themselves as having one stone, corresponding to the month of their birth, that would bring them good fortune. These stones, with a few exceptions, are very different from the birthstones of today. Have you ever heard of bloodstone? It’s an opaque green stone with red spots. It was the birthstone for March. How about sardonyx? That’s a banded, rusty brown-colored, translucent chalcedony that was the birthstone for August.
Bloodstone: March birthstone
Sardonyx: August birthstone
In 1912, Jewelers of America, an association with a definite interest in marketing gemstones, sought to standardize the list. The official list of birthstones had garnet, amethyst, aquamarine, diamond, emerald, pearl, ruby, peridot, sapphire, opal, topaz (the orange-yellow-brown kind), and turquoise. Some of the months had two birthstones, partly in deference to the traditional stones. So March had aquamarine AND bloodstone. August had peridot AND sardonyx. But, let’s face it, if you were born in March, which gem would you rather have? A transparent medium blue one or an opaque dark green one with red blemishes? It didn’t take long to drop these traditional choices.
The 1912 list has had few changes in the last 100+ years. In 1952, alexandrite was added as a birthstone for June and citrine was added as a birthstone for November. December’s traditional birthstone of lapis lazuli was replaced with blue zircon. In 2002, tanzanite, the blue-purple gemstone that had been discovered in 1967, was added to the list for December. And, most recently, in 2016, spinel was added as a birthstone for August.
Why the additions? Many people would say it’s a marketing move. Birthstones aren’t really seen as bringing good luck or good health anymore. They don’t have the significance they used to have. They’re just fun. So why not have more choices? I’m really happy for all you August babies who no longer feel confined to the yellowish-green of peridot. Spinel offers great variety! (See my blog on spinel–July 28, 2016).
So, what do we make of this idea of birthstones? To me it sounds like a complicated game of Telephone. Do you remember that game when someone whispers a phrase to someone else, and it goes around the circle? The final uttering of the phrase bears no resemblance to the original. That’s how I feel birthstones came to be. From Aaron’s breastplate to the writings of Josephus to the Jewelers’ list, it’s a crazy, convoluted path. But this is where we are and what we have. My suggestion? Adopt your favorite gemstone, the one that has meaning to you, and make it YOUR birthstone.
Amethyst: February birthstone
The Earth is very hot–over 10000 degrees Fahrenheit at its core. Over the millions of years that gemstones formed in the earth, some have been subjected to high temperatures. Interestingly enough, this heat can alter the light absorption of the stone, changing its color. Sometimes heat “improves” the color of the stone, perhaps taking a gray, brown, or almost colorless stone and turning it to a cheerful blue or a regal purple.
Man has found a way to heat stones that Earth neglected to heat. The most common types of heat treated gemstones are ruby, sapphire, topaz, tanzanite, and zircon. If you buy one of these stones, you can be quite certain that it’s been heated by man. You’d pay a huge premium to have beautiful color without man-made heat. The time spent heating, the temperature, and the other treatments that may be combined with heat will all vary depending on the raw material.
Non-heat treated tanzanite on the left and heat-treated tanzanite on the right
Our planet also naturally irradiates stones. Irradiation can change the arrangement of the protons, neutrons, and electrons that make up the atoms of the stone. This can alter the color of stones as well. Man has figured out how to irradiate gemstones in order to improve color. They can be treated to high energy radiation at a gamma ray facility that uses cobalt-60 so that there is no residual radioactivity. Diamonds are sometimes irradiated to create beautiful fancy colored diamonds. Colored diamonds can occur naturally, but it’s rare for them to be blue or green. That’s why famous gems like the Hope Diamond or the Dresden Green are so amazing. If you see a blue or green diamond, chances are man has irradiated it. Blue topaz is another irradiated gem stone. It’s the combination of irradiation and heat treatment that brings out that beautiful Swiss or London Blue in topaz.
The sun gave us inspiration for bleaching. Stones often look prettier if they are whiter or less brownish. Pearls and jadeite are both commonly bleached–and not by the sun. The process involves hydrogen peroxide or some type of acid. Pearls, even if they are natural in color rather than dyed, are still often bleached to lighten and brighten the color nature gave them.
Unbleached jadeite on the left and bleached jadeite on the right
Most people in the jewelry industry accept these three treatments. Since heating, irradiating, and bleaching could have all occurred naturally, it seems that man is helping out by making a natural process accessible to more gemstones. And since all of these treatments are permanent, no one has to worry about their gemstone changing over time. Finally, without these treatments, colored gemstones and pearls would be much more expensive and exclusive.
Our final post of this series will be about treatments that are not as commonly accepted. These are treatments you, as the consumer, should definitely be aware of before you buy. Treatments such as surface coating and fracture filling can enhance the look of the stone but may not be permanent. Remember to ask questions if you want to know about treatments on a gemstone you’re planning to purchase.
It was 18 years ago this past August 31st that Princess Diana died at the young age of 37. I remember the day vividly, how shocked and saddened everyone felt. She was so beautiful, so deserving of happiness. Her tragic death was felt around the world.
I’d always been interested in Princess Diana because 1) I was the same age; and 2) I was in London the summer of 1981, when she married Prince Charles. I actually watched her carriage drive past on the way to her wedding. It was an exciting time to be a study abroad student in London. Everywhere you turned, pictures of Lady Di and Prince Charles were plastered on stamps, plates, and posters. My fellow students and I stayed up all night to guarantee a good spot from which to view the procession. It seemed like all of London showed up for the celebration.
Princess Diana’s engagement ring started a trend of having a colored center gemstone. The oval, approximately 12 carat sapphire from Ceylon, was surrounded by 14 colorless diamonds and set in 18 karat white gold. She chose the ring from a collection made by Garrard. In existence since 1735, when it received its first royal commission, Garrards is the jeweler of the royals. It has made crowns, brooches, and many other royal pieces. What’s interesting is that Lady Diana didn’t choose to have her ring custom-made. Her ring could have been purchased by anyone who had the approximately $50,000 purchase price.
Almost thirty years later, Princess Diana’s son, Prince William, presented the ring to his fiancé, Kate Middleton. She modified it slightly, adding two platinum studs to the shank, effectively increasing the size of the ring from an H(size 4) to an I(size 4.5). Kate’s ring has brought renewed interest in colored gemstones for the engagement ring. Sapphire is perhaps the most commonly used gemstone in engagement rings. Its hardness, 9 on the Mohs scale, makes it a good choice for a ring that is worn everyday. Rubies, fancy-colored sapphires, and colored diamonds are also durable colored stones.
Kate’s ring is valued today at approximately $500,000 (10 times its original purchase price). Hopefully, she will wear it a very, very long time before it is passed down. Maybe her daughter, little Princes Charlotte of Cambridge, will wear it someday.